Pielęgniarstwo i Zdrowie Publiczne Nursing and Public Health

Piel. Zdr. Publ.
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ISSN 2082-9876 (print),   ISSN 2451-1870 (online)
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Pielęgniarstwo i Zdrowie Publiczne Nursing and Public Health

2018, tom 8, nr 1, styczeń-marzec, str. 67–71

doi: 10.17219/pzp/77039

Typ publikacji: praca poglądowa

Język publikacji: angielski

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Creative Commons BY-NC-ND 3.0 Open Access

The role of vitamin D in Crohn’s disease: Literature review

Rola witaminy D w chorobie Leśniowskiego–Crohna – przegląd literatury

Iga J. Gromny1,A,B,C,D

1 Department and Clinic of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Wroclaw Medical University, Wrocław, Poland

Abstract

Crohn’s disease is a form of inflammatory bowel disease which may affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract. The etiology of the disease remains unclear. Genetic, environmental and immunological factors are considered. The deficiency of vitamin D is common among patients with Crohn’s disease. Vitamin D, because of its immunomodulatory properties, may influence the development and course of Crohn’s disease. Patients with Crohn’s disease present some additional risk factors of osteoporosis such as maldigestion and malabsorption, increased loss of nutrients due to chronic diarrhea, pharmacological treatment, as well as past surgical procedures (resection of ileum). Because of the food intolerance, the diet of patients suffering from Crohn’s disease may include reduced amounts of calcium and vitamin D, thus, contributing to the increased risk of osteoporosis. As a result of the above-mentioned factors, there is a need for monitoring and proper supplementation of vitamin D in Crohn’s disease patients.

Streszczenie

Choroba Crohna zaliczana jest do nieswoistych chorób zapalnych jelit. Zmiany zapalne w jej przebiegu mogą obejmować wszystkie części przewodu pokarmowego. Etiologia choroby nie jest do końca jasna, wśród jej przyczyn wymienia się czynniki genetyczne, immunologiczne i środowiskowe. U pacjentów, u których zdiagnozowano chorobę Crohna, często stwierdza się niedobory witaminy D. Witamina D, z uwagi na jej immunomodulujące właściwości, może wpływać na rozwój oraz przebieg choroby Crohna. U osób z rozpoznaniem choroby Crohna występują pewne dodatkowe czynniki ryzyka wystąpienia osteoporozy. Możemy do nich zaliczyć zaburzenia trawienia oraz wchłaniania, utratę składników odżywczych na skutek przewlekłej biegunki, stosowane leki, zabiegi chirurgiczne (między innymi polegające na usunięciu istotnych części jelita cienkiego). Pacjenci z chorobą Leśniowskiego–Crohna nie tolerują niektórych pokarmów, co może wiązać się ze zmniejszoną zawartością wapnia i witaminy D i tym samym przyczyniać się do zwiększenia ryzyka wystąpienia osteoporozy. Z tego powodu u pacjentów z chorobą Crohna istnieje konieczność monitorowania oraz właściwej suplementacji witaminy D.

Key words

Crohn’s disease, inflammatory bowel diseases, vitamin D

Słowa kluczowe

nieswoiste choroby zapalne jelit, choroba Leśniowskiego–Crohna, witamina D

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